27.10.2021

Journal

Prevention of lifestyle-related diseases

Lifestyle-related diseases and obesity

Obesity of the visceral fat type is prone to lifestyle-related diseases such as “hypertension,” “dyslipidemia,” and “diabetes.”

What is a lifestyle-related disease?

Lifestyle-related diseases are a general term for diseases that develop due to the accumulation of biased lifestyles in daily life.

Lifestyle-related diseases include “hypertension,” “dyslipidemia,” and “diabetes,” as well as “malignant neoplasm (cancer),” “heart disease,” and “cerebrovascular disease,” which are the most common causes of death.

Lifestyle-related diseases were formerly called adult diseases because they increase rapidly in the 30s and 40s.

These days, the name has changed to lifestyle-related disease because the number of children who develop the disease has increased and the disease can be prevented by changing the biased lifestyle.

Major causes of lifestyle-related diseases include a decrease in physical activity (lack of exercise) and westernization of eating habits.

The amount of physical activity is clearly decreasing due to the automation of work and domestic work and the development of transportation.

In addition, western style of eating habits will result in excessive energy intake, which will lead to obesity and lifestyle-related diseases. increase.

Criteria for obesity

BMI (Body Mass Index) is used internationally to determine obesity.

The BMI is 25 or more is obese, and the risk of getting a lifestyle-related disease increases.

BMI calculation method

BMI = weight (kg) ÷ height (m) ²

Example) When the weight is 67 kg and the height is 163 cm (= 1.63 m)

BMI = 67 ÷ (1.63 × 1.63) = 25.217…

Obesity includes “subcutaneous fat type obesity” and “visceral fat type fat”.

Obesity of the visceral fat type is prone to lifestyle-related diseases.

In addition to this, the condition that has two or more of hypertension, lipid abnormality, and hypertension is called metabolic syndrome (visceral fat syndrome).

Major lifestyle-related diseases and prevention

① Hypertension

High pressure is applied to the arteries, and the cells inside the blood vessels are easily damaged, and cholesterol and other substances permeate into them, causing “arteriosclerosis.”

Arteriosclerosis causes myocardial infarction, cerebral infarction, and cerebral haemorrhage.

Blood pressure rises with aging, and the addition of an unbalanced diet makes it easier to develop hypertension.

Meal precautions

  1. Limit salt intake to less than 6g per day
  2. Intake of potassium, calcium and dietary fibre

② Dyslipidaemia

Too much increase in substances in the blood (cholesterol / triglyceride) is called dyslipidaemia.

When blood flow is impaired due to lack of exercise, this lipid enters the walls of blood vessels and causes arteriosclerosis.

Dyslipidaemia is painless and less likely to manifest itself, so it should be detected early by regular health examinations.

Meal precautions

  1. Do not overeat with proper energy intake as a guide
  2. Refrain from foods high in cholesterol
  3. Eat more fish and dietary fibre than meat

③ Diabetes

If the hormone insulin is deficient or does not work sufficiently, glucose (blood sugar) in the blood will not be used as an energy source, resulting in hyperglycaemia.

Blood sugar is also excreted in the urine, and this condition is called diabetes.

Although there are no subjective symptoms in the early stages of diabetes, it is difficult to completely cure the symptoms once they develop, and as the symptoms progress, the three major complications of retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy appear.

Meal precautions

  1. Do not overeat with proper energy intake as a guide
  2. Make the meal time of 3 meals a day constant
  3. Refrain from animal fats and use vegetable oils and fish fats.
  4. Eat a lot of dietary fibre
  5. Moderate sweetness, alcohol and soft drinks

④ Gout

Gout is a condition in which the amount of uric acid contained in the blood increases and deposits as crystals in the joints, stimulating the nociceptive nerves.

This gout is more likely to occur in middle-aged and older men, with severe pain in the base of the toes and red and swollen arthritis.

Hyperuricemia is said to be associated with a diet high in purines in addition to heredity and obesity.

What is a purine?

It is abundant in dried sardines, dried bonito, milt, liver, etc., and has a common chemical structure called purine ring.

Meal precautions

  1. Refrain from foods that contain a lot of purines
  2. Refrain from alcohol as it increases uric acid synthesis and reduces uric acid excretion.
  3. Drink plenty of water

 

 

 

English is my second language, so you may find incorrect sentences.

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